Chapter 4 Inside the Cell

  1. What are the three principles of the cell theory?
  2. Why is "the cell theory" a theory and not "the cell hypothesis"?
  3. Why aren’t viruses considered to be alive?
  4. What is the difference between the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and organelles?
  5. Geometrically, why are cells so small? Physiologically, why are cells so small?
  6. List four differences between a prokaryotic and a eukaryotic cell.
  7. Nucleus?
  8. Shape of DNA?
  9. Organelles?
  10. Transcription & Translation?
  11. Be able to identify: nuclear envelope, nucleolus, nuclear pore, and where the chromatin is.
  12. What is the function of the nucleolus?
  13. Where is the chromatin in the nucleus?
  14. What is a gene? What does it do?
  15. Describe the journey from DNA to protein. Include the following in this order: DNA, gene, mRNA, nuclear pore, Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum, ribosome, protein, transport vesicle, cis-face of the Golgi Body, trans-face of the Golgi Body, lysosome.
  16. What is the function of the rough ER?
  17. What is the function of the smooth ER?
  18. If you look at an animal cell was predominately made of smooth ER, what organ did that cell come from?
  19. What are the functions of the Golgi Body?
  20. What happens at the cis-face of the Gody Body? Trans-face?
  21. What does a lysosome look like?
  22. What functions does a lysosome have?
  23. What organelle ensures that you don’t have webbed feet?
  24. What does a vacuole derive from?
  25. What are the functions of a vacuole in a plant? In an animal?
  26. What organelle is responsible for giving flowers their color?
  27. How many membranes does a mitochondrion have? Why?
  28. Why do mitochondria have their own DNA? What can they do with it that most other organelles can’t?
  29. What are the functions of the mitochondrion?
  30. The structure of the cytoskeleton is made up of what?
  31. What are three functions of the cytoskeleton in various cells?
  32. How many membranes does a chloroplast have? Why?
  33. Be able to identify from a picture: stroma, grana, thykaloid, inner membrane, outermembrane.
  34. Chlorophyll are attached to which part of the chloroplast?
  35. What is the function of the chloroplast?
  36. List four differences between an animal cell and a plant cell.